Archives and libraries, museums and galleries, and the built environment of Liverpool support a very wide range of research in the global-long-eighteenth century.This page provides an overview of the most important of these resources.
The evolution of spectacles can be said to have lain dormant for 500 years until the eighteenth century made some slight progress in craftsmanship and awakened the idea that frame fitting made a difference to the optical results (Law, 1978) The major design innovation of the century was the introduction of sides at some point before 1730.Eighteenth century spectacles are characterised by large, round eye rim shapes.The lugs are frequently quite wide with split centre joints. The pair illustrated here dates from around 1795 - like many metal pairs it bears manufacturer's markings that can assist in dating.Eighteenth century spectacles were big and noticeable.To reduce misunderstandings about the date, it was normal in parish registers to place a new year heading after 24 March (for example "1661") and another heading at the end of the following December, "1661/62", to indicate that in the following few weeks the year was 1661 Old Style but 1662 New Style.
Some more modern sources, often more academic ones, also use the "1661/62" style for the period between 1 January and 25 March for years before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in England. Through enactment of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Britain and the British Empire (including much of what is now the eastern part of the United States) adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752, by which time it was necessary to correct by 11 days.
In Scotland, the legal start of the year had already been moved to 1 January (in 1600), but Scotland otherwise continued to use the Julian calendar until 1752. But the start of the Julian year was not always 1 January, and was altered at different times in different countries (see New Year's Day in the Julian calendar). This was 25 March in England, Wales and the Colonies until 1752.
From 1155 to 1752, the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March (Lady Day) The corresponding date in the Gregorian calendar is 9 February 1649, the date by which his contemporaries in some parts of continental Europe would have recorded his execution. During the years between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar in continental Europe and its introduction in Britain, contemporary usage in England started to change.
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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.